A saddle nose is a medical condition linked to nasal trauma, wherein a person’s nose bridge has a visible concavity. This nose deformity mainly results from the collapse of the keystone area. This is often the result of a septoplasty or SMR procedure performed for nasal obstruction whereby too much cartilage was taken from the patient’s nose. Due to the loss of this internal cartilage support, a deformity develops in the patient’s nose leading to a foreshortened or excessively up-turned nose tip along with the retraction of the columella. Trauma or previous infections can similarly cause collapse of the keystone resulting in a saddle nose. The ideal correction to fix saddle nose is to restore the structural supports that had been disrupted.
Some of the common factors that instigate a saddle nose deformity in a person include:
Congenital Malformations: These imperfections appear in the foetus itself and are a result of the exposure of a pregnant woman to peripheral factors in the initial months of pregnancy.
Hereditary or Genetic Factors: Such people have either a big nose or mushroom/small nose.
Drug Abuse: Another reason of saddle nose deformity in a person is Cocaine addiction.
Leprosy: It is an infectious disease that leads to nose and skin issues.
Venereal Diseases: Some of the sexually transmitted diseases may infect both the mother as well as may be passed to the foetus, thus causing saddle nose deformation.
Malignant Tumors: These cancerous tumours infect a person’s skin, which may in turn, lead to nose distortion.
Wrong Nose Surgery: Rhinoplasty surgeries may, at times, result in damage to the supporting nose bones.
Injury: Accidents and rigorous exercises may also lead to fractures in the nose bones causing distortions.
Rhinophyma: Inflation in the fatty skin glands of the adults is also a reason of an nose abnormal nose.
Depending on the degree of distortion, a saddle nose may be:
Severe Deformity: Such people have acutely depressed nasal dorsum, accompanied by external nasal deformity.
Mild Deformity: In this case, the individuals suffer from an insignificant nasal collapse with mildly flattened nasal dorsum, which makes their nasal appearance unnatural.
Moderate Deformity: Such people have a wide nose bridge and flat nasal tip leading to shorter length of their nose.
Septal Operation: In this procedure, septal structures are manipulated to achieve a correct alignment along with counteracting the nose deformity.
Nose Elevation: The procedure includes elevating a depressed nasal tab with a mechanical device. This method is, however, considered as a poor way of curing the saddle nose as it may lead to serious injuries and complications.
Skin Grafting/ Rib Grafting: In this procedure, a person’s saddle nose deformity is corrected by using his/her own cartilage or rib grafts, which are used for building the nasal dorsum
Rhinoplasty: A reconstructive rhinoplasty procedure can treat a person’s nasal septum.
Inferior Turbinate Surgery: In this surgery, the patient’s inferior turbinate is sectioned and dissected with scissors to leave the periosteum intact. This procedure is particularly favorable for reshaping the saddle nose as its cost is relatively low compared to other methods.
Silicon Droplet Method: A microdroplet method makes use of silicone for correcting the nose deformity. This method may cause fibroblastic reaction that may take months to correct the area while causing infection, skin necrosis, granuloma formation, and small vessel thrombosis.